Monday, 7 May 2012

Phase–As–Process As Grammatical Metaphor

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 185n):
In hypotactic verbal group complexes, the phase (starting, continuing; trying, succeeding; and so on) is an expansion of the process itself; but [where] the phase is construed as a process in its own right … such examples are in fact often metaphorical variants of clauses with phased verbal group complexes.

(Second Order) Agent In Mental Clauses

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 301):
… mental clauses with an Inducer

Mental Clauses: Emanating Vs Impinging As Middle Vs Effective

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 301):
… the mental distinction between ‘emanating’ and ‘impinging’ is … the distinction between ‘middle’ and ‘effective’.

Ergative Vs Transitive Structure Types

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 300-1):
The ergative structure is open–ended, and a further round of agency can always be added on:
the ball rolled : Fred rolled the ball : Mary made Fred roll the ball : John got Mary to make Fred roll the ball : …
The transitive structure, on the other hand, is configurational; it cannot be extended in this way. Thus, from a transitive point of view, Mary made Fred roll the ball is not a single process; it is two processes forming one complex.

Analytic Causatives: Second Order Agents

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 300):
From a transitive point of view, in these initiating structures there is a feature of cause added. … From an ergative point of view, these clauses simply add a feature of agency. If the clause already has an Agent in the structure, the only way this can be done is by using an analytic causative; this makes it possible to bring in an Agent of the second order …

Analytic Causatives With ‘Make’: Material ~ Attributive

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 299-300):
There is a large class of material processes of this kind where the agnate causatives are, or may be, attributive: the sun ripened the fruit/made the fruit ripen, her voice calmed the audience/made the audience calm; these will belong to the ‘initiating’ type — if we say the sun ripened, her voice calmed, the meaning changes from ‘make (ripe/calm)’ to ‘become (ripe/calm)’.

Transitive Variants Viewed Ergatively

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 299):
In ergative terms, ‘a does something to x’ and ‘a makes x do something’ are both cases of ‘x is involved in something, brought about by a’.