Wednesday, 11 April 2012

Behavioural Processes: Introducing Direct Speech

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 252):
… while ‘behavioural’ clauses do not ‘project’ indirect speech or thought, they often appear in fictional narrative introducing direct speech, as a means of attaching a behavioural feature to the verbal process of ‘saying’.

Behavioural Processes: The Anomalous Verb ‘Watch’

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 251-2):
The verb watch is anomalous: in I’m watching you, the tense suggests a behavioural process but the you appears as a participant, like the Phenomenon of a ‘mental’ clause.  Since this is restricted to watch, we can label this participant as Phenomenon, indicating the ‘mental’ analogue.

Behavioural Processes: Orientation As Place

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 251):
Some [behavioural processes] also regularly feature a prepositional phrase with to, at or on … These are in origin circumstances of Place; in the behavioural context they express orientation, but we may continue to use that label.

Behavioural Processes: Associated Circumstances

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 251):
Certain types of circumstance are associated with behavioural processes: those of Matter with [near mental and near verbal types] … Manner with the remainder …

Behavioural Processes: Agency & Range

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 251):
Behavioural processes are almost always middle; the most typical pattern is a clause consisting of Behaver and process only … A common variant of these is that where the behaviour is dressed up as if it was a participant … The participant is analogous to the Scope of a ‘material’ clause (both being manifestations of the general function of Range); we shall call it Behaviour.

Behavioural Processes: Unmarked Present Tenses

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 250):
The usual unmarked present tense for behavioural processes is present in present, like the material … however, we also find the simple present in its unmarked sense (ie not meaning habitual) … which suggests an affiliation with a mental.

Behavioural Processes: “Senser Doing”

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 250):
The participant who is ‘behaving’, labelled Behaver, is typically a conscious being, like the Senser; the Process is grammatically more like one of ‘doing’.

Behavioural Clauses: Not So Much A Distinct Process Type

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 255):
… ‘behavioural’ process clauses are not so much a distinct type of process, but rather a cluster of small subtypes blending the material and the mental into a continuum …

Behavioural Processes: Why The Least Distinct Process Type

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 248-50):
These are processes of (typically human) physiological and psychological behaviour, like breathing, coughing, smiling, dreaming and staring. They are the least distinct of all the six process types because they have no clearly defined characteristics of their own; rather they are partly like the material and partly like the mental.