Monday, 2 April 2012

The ‘As Participant’ Or ‘As Process’ Contrast In Intensive Relational Clauses

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 240):
The contrast between ‘as participant’ and ‘as process’ … is a grammatical one and in a sense it applies also to ‘intensive’ clauses. Thus we have for example

the meaning of “kita:bun” is ‘book’/“kita:bun” means ‘book’,
the name of his mother is Anna/his mother is called Anna,
examples of amphibians are frogs, toads and salamanders/amphibians are exemplified by frogs, toads and salamanders.

But a special feature of the ‘intensive’ type is that the sense of ‘meaning’, ‘name’, ‘example’ and the like may be left implicit in the participant

Possession & Circumstantiation As Participant Or As Process

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 240):
With ‘possessive’ and ‘circumstantial’ clauses, there is thus a systemic contrast between ‘possession/circumstantiation as participant’ and ‘possession/circumstantiation as process’. … we often find lexical pairs manifesting the contrast such as be x’s/be owned, be like/resemble, be with/accompany, be in/inhabit, be around/surround, be opposite of/face, be about/concern

Possessive And Circumstantial Relational Clauses

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 239):
The variants of ‘possessive’ and ‘circumstantial’ clauses with be (and have) are analogous to ‘intensive’ clauses.  Thus Emily has a piano can be interpreted as ‘Emily is a member of the class of piano–owners’ and the meeting is on Friday as ‘the meeting is a member of the class of the class of events on Friday’.  Similarly, the piano is Emily’s can be interpreted as ‘the piano is identified as the one belonging to Emily’ and Friday is the best time as ‘Friday is identified as the best time’.