Tuesday, 28 February 2012

Mood & Tone: Exclamatives

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 141):
Tone 5 [rise-fall] is the one most typical of exclamative clauses, where the meaning is ‘wow!’ — something that is (presented as) contrary to expectation.

Mood & Tone: Imperatives

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 141):
Proposals are typically combined with tones 1 [fall] and 3 [level~low rising]. Imperative clauses, functioning as commands, typically favour tone 1, as also do modulated declaratives; but a mild command, such as a request, and also a negative command, often comes with tone 3, which has the effect of leaving the decision to the listener. For the same reason offers are commonly associated with tone 3.

Mood & Tone: Interrogatives

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 141):
Within the interrogative, the yes/no type is usually found with tone 2, the ‘uncertain’ rising tone. WH–interrogatives, on the other hand, favour tone 1 [fall], because although they are asking for a missing element, the proposition itself is taken as certain … ‘certainty’ means certainty about the polarity

Mood & Tone: Declaratives

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 141):
Declarative clauses most frequently combine with tone 1 [fall], the feature of certainty; but there is a secondary motif, also very common, whereby the declarative goes with tone 4 [fall-rise], showing some kind of reservation.

Imperatives Realising Suggestions (Command + Offer)

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 139):
The ‘you–and–me’ type, with let’s, realises a suggestion, something that is at the same time both command and offer.

Imperatives: Let’s & Let Me

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 139):
Given its place in the paradigm, it is best interpreted as a wayward form of the Subject ‘you and I’

Imperatives: Mood Elements & Finiteness

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 138-9):
the unmarked positive has no Mood element, the verb form (eg look) is Predicator only, with no Finite in it. The other forms have a Mood element; this consists of Subject only (you), Finite only (do, don’t), or Finite followed by Subject. Any of these can be followed by a Mood tag: won’t you?, will you? — showing that the clause is finite, even though the verb is non-finite (the imperative of be is be, as in Be quiet!, not the finite form are).

Imperatives: Person

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 138):

The imperative has a different system of person from the indicative. Since the imperative is the mood for exchanging goods–&–services, its Subject is ‘you’ or ‘me’ or ‘you and me’.

Exclamations: Grammatical Realisations

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 138):
Exclamative clauses … have a distinct grammar; but other mood types may also realise exclamations; this includes yes/no interrogative clauses that are negative in polarity: … Isn’t it amazing!